- plant with upright growth up to 2 feet in height and oblong to lance-shaped leaves
- stems are slightly hairy and leaves are bluish-green in color and are directly attached to stems (no petiole)
- white flowers are small and grow in dense clusters
- seeds are produced inside inflated, heart-shaped pods
- plants produce rhizomes
- commonly grows in planting beds
- herbaceous perennial with early spring growth
- rosettes and flowers produced by late spring
- seeds mature by mid-summer; plants can flower and produce seed again by late summer
- fall frost will kill the aboveground portion of the plant
- Hand-pull plants in planting beds prior to seed maturation.
- Effective control must target both aboveground and underground plant structures; manually remove underground structures to prevent re-sprouting.
- Shallow tillage or hoeing will control young plants in planting beds. Do not till established plants; root fragments will produce new plants.
- Apply an appropriate post-emergent herbicide directly to target weeds.