IPM in the National News
NEW ACTIVE INGREDIENT GETS REDUCED RISK STATUS
DuPont’s new active ingredient chlorantraniliprole (E2Y45) received reduced-risk status in April 2007 for use on apple, lettuce, peach, pear, tomato, and turf. This new anthranilamide may be a reduced risk alternative to Guthion and phosmet for codling moth control, and because it works differently from existing insecticides, it will be very useful for resistance management strategies.
ORGANIC PESTICIDE UPDATE
Ecosmart, a patented botanical, organic pesticide, goes on sale soon in many Wal-Mart stores. Brands include Flying Insect, Ant & Roach, and Wasp & Hornet Killers. They sell for less than $4 each and are environmentally friendly.
Ecosmart products are made of non-toxic plant oils that kill as fast as conventional pesticides. Oils are derived from thyme, clove, peanuts, and other plants. These ingredients kill insects by blocking the octopamine receptor–a neurotransmitter unique to insects. In effect, the chemicals paralyze insect nervous systems causing death in seconds. These plant oils are found in other products, as well, including Green Light products and others.
Ecosmart’s products are exempt from EPA pesticide registration because they contain ingredients that pose minimal risk to humans or the environment.
BIOLOGICAL WHITEFLY CONTROL
The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, feeds on plants from over 60 different families and occurs almost worldwide. It vectors viruses, causes irregular fruit ripening, stippled leaves, and sometimes death. It is very difficult to control due to resistance to many pesticides.
A new fungal species was discovered feeding on whiteflies in 2001, named Isaria propawskii. Researchers at Agricultural Research Service in Texas recently showed that it kills both larval and adult stages of silverleaf whitefly. Because this fungus can survive in hot and dry conditions and is persistent even without the host, its use as a biological control for whitefly seems probable.
SILICON MAY PROTECT GREENHOUSE PLANTS
A variety of research studies suggest that the addition of silicon in potting mixes boosts yields and protects greenhouse plants from toxicity and fungal diseases, possibly reducing the need for pesticides.
X-ray analysis of a variety of bedding plants shows that some of them—such as New Guinea impatiens, marigold and zinnia—accumulate silicon in significant concentrations in unique cells in their leaves. The next step is to determine which crops put nutrients where they are most useful to the plant.
NEW BACTERIUM LETHAL TO SEVERAL PESTS
Agricultural Research Service scientists discovered a bacterium from soils in central Maryland that is toxic to Colorado potato beetle, gypsy moth, small hive beetle, corn rootworm, diamondback moth, and tobacco hornworm.
The new bacterial species (Chromobacterium subtsugae sp. nov) killed 50 percent of a colony of small hive beetles within five days and reduced body weights of tobacco hornworm and gypsy moth, causing reduced feeding.
Scientists say they will next work to isolate the toxin from the bacteria.
Useful Web Sites and Publications
http://safelawns.org/: a new organization dedicated to organic lawn care
http://www.ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/LabelDatabase/index.cfm; and http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/biorationals/biorationals_main_srch.php are two new databases that provide biopesticides by state and crop type
http://www.howtogoorganic.com/: information, directories, etc., on switching to organic production
"Utilizing Pesticide Mode of Action to Prevent Resistance" (http://www.ipm.uiuc.edu/education/action.html) are three color-coded decision-making guides to help growers rotate pesticide classes.
"Handbook of Forage and Rangeland Insects," ESA Press, is an excellent new reference with photos, maps, and keys: http://www.shopapspress.org/haoffoandrai.html.
Michigan State University now offers pocket-sized scouting guides for insects, diseases, and weeds: http://ipm.msu.edu/pdf/pocketGuidesLandsc07.pdf
Oregon State University’s IPM Resource Guide: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/em/em8898.pdf
"Vegetable Diseases," Academic Press/APS, is a full-color reference guide for hundreds of diseases: http://www.shopapspress.org/vedicoha.html.