Tree Fruit Insects
Aphids are common, secondary pests of apples, but infestations resulting in economic
loss are uncommon, except for woolly apple aphid. Aphids overwinter as eggs on tree
limbs, or as nymphs on roots and/or limbs.
The fruit fly, apple maggot, primarily infests native hawthorn in Utah, but recently
has been found in home garden plums. Apple maggot is a quarantine pest; its presence
can restrict export markets for commercial fruit.
Apple and Pear Insect Control For Homeowners (Codling Moth)
There are few experiences that equal biting into a crisp, flavorful apple; few worse
than finding half a worm in the remaining portion. Worms infesting apples and pears
are immature larvae of codling moth.
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
Brown marmorated stink bug feeds on a broad range of plants including fruits, vegetables, field crops, ornamentals, weeds, and native species. Adult- and nymph-feeding causes light-colored stippling and lesions on leaves, necrotic lesions and scars on fruits, and deformed pods and seeds on legumes.Download
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Management for Fruits And Vegetables
It is important to accurately identify and monitor brown marmorated stink bug and feeding damage before making any treatment. This fact sheet emphasizes identification, monitoring, and management of this pest. Download
Parasitoids of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is an invasive pest that damages fruit, vegetable,
and nut crops in the U.S. Parasitoid wasps that sting and kill BMSB eggs are the most
promising biological control method. This fact sheet describes some of the parasitoid
wasps that have been found in Utah, as well as Trissolcus japonicus, a very effective parasitoid wasp that is native to BMSB’s home range and has been
found in the U.S., but has not yet been detected in Utah.
Bumble Flower Beetle
Bumble flower beetles are common throughout the growing season on flowers, oozing
sap, and other sweet, overripe, or fermenting matter. Bumble flower beetles seldom
warrant the use of chemicals for control.
A new pest to Utah apples; controls are recommended only if there has been a history
of damage. Damaging stage: first generation nymphs feed on developing fruit. Monitor
nymphs in the spring from pink through petal fall.
Campylomma Bug Sampling Form
Both spring and fall cankerworms occur sporadically in Utah, typically on a five to
seven year cycle. Larvae feed for six weeks in the spring and cause heavy defoliation
in outbreak years.
Cat-facing Insects of Tree Fruits
Cat-facing insects are sporadic pests in orchards, but can cause severe fruit injury
when populations are high. Cat-facing adults and nymphs feed on the surface of fruit
causing unsightly dimpling, deformity, and scarring.
Codling moth is the major pest of apple and pear in Utah. Damaging stage: larva tunnels into fruit. Monitoring stage: adult moth. Use of pheromone traps and the degree-day model (based on daily temperatures) are critical for determining optimal treatment timings.Download
Codling Moth - An Alternate Biofix-Setting Method
Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key insect pest of apple, pear, and walnut
throughout the world, including Utah (apple and pear).
Codling Moth Mating Disruption
Codling moth is a key pest of apples and pears. Mating disruption does not kill insects; it saturates the orchard with the female moth sex pheromone to delay or prevent mating. At least 10 contiguous acres are required for codling moth mating disruption to be effective.Download
Codling Moth Sampling Form
Eriophyid Mites, Bud, Blister, Gall, and Rust Mites
Eriophyid mites cannot be seen without a 20x hand lens or greater magnification. Eriophyid
mites seldom cause serious injury or stress to plants; damage is normally aesthetic.
European Cherry Fruit Fly
European Cherry Fruit Fly (ECFF) is a new invasive cherry-infesting pest from Europe. It was first detected in the U.S. in New York in 2017. Larvae feed exclusively within fruits, causing them to rot and fall off the tree. In Europe, heavy infestations have resulted in 100% fruit loss. Since adults fly only short distances, spread occurs primarily through movement of infested fruit.Download
The European earwig is an omnivore; it feeds on detritus, fungi, plants, and insects. Earwigs can injure the buds, leaves, flowers, and fruits of a broad range of plants, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals; they can be a nuisance pest by entering buildings.Download
European Red Mite
European red mite infestations are sporadic in Utah orchards, but injury can be severe when populations are high. Adult and immature mites feed on leaves causing white stippling, bronzing, and defoliation. Tree vigor and fruit color, size, and production.Download
Flatheaded Borers (Pacific, Appletree)
Pacific flatheaded and flatheaded appletree borers are two wood-boring pests of many
fruit and ornamental trees. The most susceptible trees are drought-stressed, newly
planted, or those with trunk or limb wounds.
Greater Peachtree Borer
Greater peachtree borer is an important pest of peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry,
and plum. Adults are clearwing moths and larvae are caterpillars that burrow and feed
in the cambium beneath the bark near or just below the soil line.
Intermountain Tree Fruit Production Guide
Integrated pest management (IPM) involves collecting information about a pest and
crop to ensure that you administer the most economical, effective, and environmentally
and socially sound pest management decision.
Invasive Insect Look-alikes: Mistaken Identity
Pest identification is the cornerstone of integrated pest management, but is a skill
that can be difficult to master. Mistakes in identification are common, as many insects
look and act alike, and/or can cause similar injury.
Leafrollers in Fruit Orchards
Several species of leafrollers are economically important pests of tree fruits in North America. In Utah, injury to tart cherry crops from leafroller caterpillars prompted a 4 year survey for five species that are known to occur in the western U.S. Download
Peach Twig Borer
Peach twig borer is a major pest of peach, nectarine and apricot in Utah. There are multiple generations each year. Spring and early summer generations of larvae bore into and kill new shoots while later summer larvae attack fruit, typically entering fruit near the stem end.Download
Peach Twig Borer Sampling Form
Peach Twig Borer Mating Disruption
Peach twig borer is a key pest of peach, nectarine, and apricot. Mating disruption
does not kill insects; it saturates the orchard with the female moth sex pheromone
to delay or prevent mating.
Pear psylla is an important pest of pear in Utah. Young and adult psylla feed in leaf
phloem tissues, producing sticky honeydew. Psylla can cause fruit russetting and stunt
trees; psylla shock and transmission of pear decline can kill trees.
Pear Psylla Sampling Form
Pear sawfly hosts include pear, cherry, hawthorn, plum, buttonbrush, Juneberry, mountain
ash, cotoneaster, and quince. There are 2 generations of pear sawfly each year; second
generation larvae cause the majority of the damage.
Pear Fruit Sawfly
Pear fruit sawfly (Hoplocampa brevis) was first identified in Utah in 2015. It is different from another pest of the same
name that feeds on foliage--also known as pear slug (Caliroa cerasi)--and feeds exclusively within pear fruitlets in early spring.
Pest Monitoring Calendar - Apple
Pest Monitoring Calendar - Apricot
Pest Monitoring Calendar - Cherry
Pest Monitoring Calendar - Peach and Nectarine
Pest Monitoring Calendar - Pear
Pest Monitoring Calendar - Plum
Prionus Root Borer
This long-horned beetle is native to western North America and lives for 3 years or
more underground, feeding on tree roots. Severe infestations can cause the death of
stone fruit trees.
San Jose Scale
San Jose scale is a sporadic pest in well maintained commercial fruit orchards. Severe
infestations can kill limbs, cause deformed and poor colored fruit, reduce yields,
and eventually kill trees.
Shothole borers can cause damage to ornamental and fruit trees in Utah and adults
are present from spring to early fall. Stressed or injured trees are more prone to
Soft Scale in Utah
There are more than 1,000 different species of soft scales found throughout the world.
Less than 5% are considered serious pests.
Speckled Green Fruitworm
Fruitworms chew holes in fruits and leaves, and can cause localized defoliation of
fruit trees. Fruitworms can be monitored with beat-samples (abrupt shaking of tree
branches over a tray).
Spider and Predatory Mites Sampling Form
Spotted Wing Drosophila
Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) is a new Utah pest (first found August, 2010) that can
infest un-ripened (pre-harvest), ripe, over-ripe, and spoiled fruits. SWD attacks
a broad range of fruits, including tree fruits, berry fruits, and vegetable fruits.
Spotted Wing Drosophila Monitoring
The Backyard Orchard - Apple Pests
The Backyard Orchard - Apricot Pests
The Backyard Orchard - Cherry Pests
The Backyard Orchard - Peach and Nectarine Pests
The Backyard Orchard - Pear Pests
The Backyard Orchard - Plum Pests
Utah Home Orchard Pest Management Guide
Integrated pest management (IPM) is the practice of combining knowledge of the pest and host plant with multiple tactics for long-term, safe pest control. The goal of IPM is pesticide reduction by using cultural, mechanical, and biological controls before the last option, pesticides.Download
Walnut Husk Fly
Walnut husk fly infests black and English walnuts, and late-maturing apricot and peach
fruits when infested walnuts are nearby. Damage is caused by egg-laying punctures
and larvae developing inside husks and fruits.
Web Spinning Spider Mites
Spider mites feed on a wide range of plants, including fruit trees, field and forage
crops, ornamentals, and weeds. Adult and immature mites feed on leaves causing white
stippling, bronzing, and defoliation.
Western Cherry Fruit Fly
Western cherry fruit fly is the primary insect pest of sweet and tart cherries in
Utah. Damage occurs from the larva developing inside fruit. Females lay eggs under
the skin of fruit, so target adult flies for control.
Western Flower Thrips
Western flower thrips (WFT) are a frequent pest of nectarine, and an occasional pest
of apple and other fruits in Utah. WFT can be abundant on numerous weed and crop hosts.
Western Tentiform Leafminer
Western tentiform leafminer is an indirect pest that mines the leaves of apple and cherry. It can diminish the photosynthetic capability of trees and reduce fruit size and quality. Leafminer populations can fluctuate dramatically within and between years.Download
Western Tentiform Leafminer Sampling Form - Apple and Cherry
White Apple Leafhopper
White apple leafhopper is an indirect pest with two generations per year. Decision
for control should be based on economic justifications as well as orchard and other
White Apple Leafhopper Sampling Form