Tree Fruit Research Reports

Listed below are results of IPM research projects in tree fruits and agriculture that have been presented at professional meetings. 

2013 Reports

Cherry Fruit Fly Killing Station Study: Backyard Tree Results, Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader, and Diane Alston, Entomologist

Large yellow disks were painted yellow and treated with a reduced-risk insecticide bait, GF-120, to kill cherry fruit fly adults before they could lay eggs in fruits.  Results for a backyard cherry tree study are presented.

Prionus californicus Mating Disruption in Utah Sweet Cherry, Michael Pace, Box Elder Co. Extension Agent, and Diane Alston, Entomologist

Isomate California prionus mating disruption dispensers reduced male trap catch by 94% across five sweet cherry orchards in Box Elder County, UT.  Isomate mating disruption dispensers appear to be a valuable tool for reducing populations of this destructive root-boring pest.


2012 Reports

Evaluation of Puffer Mating Disruption to Manage Codling Moth, Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader, and Diane Alston, Entomologist

This project tested the efficacy of Checkmate Puffer CM (Suterra Corp., Bend, OR), a money-saving mating disruption option to manage codling moth in apple orchards.  It works by emitting a puff of codling moth pheromone (at 1 puffer/acre) into the orchard air every 15 minutes.  For this two-year project, we established two demonstration orchards and found that puffer technology works best on large orchards (35+ acres) with low codling moth population.

Rosy Apple Aphid Insecticide Efficacy, Diane Alston, Entomologist, and Thor Lindstrom, Research Associate

A new systemic insecticide, Sivanto, was compared to Admire Pro and an untreated control for suppression of rosy apple aphid and green apple aphid in apple.  The two highest rates of Sivanto and Admire Pro performed the best in suppressing rosy apple aphids for up to 26 days post-treatment.


2011 Reports

Survey of Diseases in Stone Fruit Orchards in Northern Utah, Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader

This project surveyed orchards primarily for brown rot, a disease caused by Monilinia fructicola.  No brown rot was found, and the most common diseases were cytospora canker, bacterial canker, and coryneum blight.

Raspberry Horntail Management by Diane Alston, Entomologist, Brent Black, Horticulturist, and Thor Lindstrom, Research Associate

Results on the susceptibility of raspberry varieties to horntail, horntail phenology and abundance, and parasitoids that attack horntail are presented.

Earwig Management in Peach Orchards by Diane Alston, Entomologist, and Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader

Cardboard refuge traps on tree trunks were effective in monitoring earwig adults and nymphs. Spinosad and carbaryl were the most effective insecticides in preventing fruit injury from earwigs.  The majority of fruit injury occurred in late August to mid September when fruits softened as they ripened.

Prionus Root Borer Mating Disruption and Trapping in Sweet Cherry by Diane Alston, Entomologist, and Mike Pace, Box Elder County Agent

The experimental Isomate California prionus mating disruption dispenser reduced trap capture of male P. californicus by 90% in sweet cherry orchards. A commercially available lure loaded with 30 mg of P. californicus pheromone attracted more male beetles to bucket traps than a 0.1 mg research lure. The potential for these new monitoring and control products to reduce populations of P. californicus in commercial orchards is promising.

Rosy Apple Aphid Insecticide Efficacy Trial, by Diane Alston, Entomologist, and Thor Lindstrom, Research Associate

Seven insecticide treatments were applied to infested apples, and the highest rate of BY02960 performed the best in suppressing both rosy and green apple aphids for up to 25-days post-treatment.  Oil, Admire, and Calypso were among the other treatments.

Establishing a Grower-Operated Fire Blight Detection Lab, by Marion Murray and Claudia Nischwitz, Plant Pathologist

This project used a molecular DNA test called LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) to detect fire blight bacteria in apple flower clusters.  We set up the first ever “grower lab” at an apple processing plant in Utah County, and compared results from the grower lab to the same test run at the Utah State University cooperator lab. When LAMP tests were positive in the grower lab, we notified growers to treat when weather conditions were optimal for infection.


2010 Reports

2010 Tree Fruit Grower IPM Survey, by Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader and Diane Alston, Entomologist

Utah tree fruit growers were surveyed in 2010 regarding their IPM and general pest management practices in 2009.

Currant Borer Mating Disruption in Utah, by Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader

Production of black and red currants in the U.S. is limited due to infestation by the clearwing moth, currant borer (Synanthedon tipuliformis). This project tested the effectiveness of mating disruption in controlling currant borer on a small farm in northern Utah.  The mating disruption was not any more effective than spraying alone.  Although trap catch was less than the sprayed block, the amount of infestation was not reduced. 

Determining Incidence of Three Diseases in Utah Stone Fruit Orchards, by Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader

A survey of stone fruit orchards in Utah was conducted primarily to determine the presence of the diseases, brown rot, bacterial canker, and cytospora canker.  The primary pathogen found was Cytospora.  A few isolates of Pseudomonas was found, and Monilinia fructicola, the disease that causes brown rot, was not found.


2009 Reports

Analysis of Codling Moth Mating Disruption Dispensers in a High-Elevation Northern Utah Apple Orchard, by Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader and Diane Alston, Entomologist, USU

Four brands of hand-applied mating disruption dispensers were hung in an orchard for 140 days and tested for pheromone release rate and amount of residual pheromone.  Results showed that all brands still released pheromone after 140 days, but with significant differences.  Isomate-C plus was the most effecient product, and Checkmate was the least.


2008 Reports

Codling Moth Monitoring in Mating Distrupted Apple Orchards:  Development of Trap Thresholds and Prediction of Fruit Injury, Year 3, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist, and Marion Murray, IPM Project Leader, USU

Three codling moth lures were tested in mating-disrupted Utah apple orchards to determine a threshold for treatment based on fruit injury.  The DA-Combo lures caught the most moths and, along with the DA lure, was better than the 10x lure at predicting fruit injury.  Examples of thresholds developed:  for 0.5% fruit injury threshold, treat when 10 moths are caught in the DA-Combo lure and 1 moth is caught in the DA lure; for 5% injury, treat when 100 moths are caught in the DA-Combo lure and when 10 moths are caught in the DA lure.


2007 Reports
 

Codling Moth Monitoring in Mating Distrupted Apple Orchards:  Development of Trap Thresholds and Prediction of Fruit Injury, Year 2, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist, USU

Of the four codling moth lures tested, the DA-Combo lures caught the most moths and, along with the DA lure, was the best predictor of fruit injury.  (The other lures tested were 10x and 1x.)  In addition, Alston found that the threshold developed in the Pacific Northwest of 5 moths/week using a DA-Combo lure is resonable for use in Utah.

2007 Western Cherry Fruit Fly Control Trial:  Attraction of Adults to GF-120 Insecticide Bait Droplets by Addition of Potential Attractants, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist, USU and Thor Lindstrom, Horticulture Research Associate, USU

Four different attractants (ammonium acetate, urea, torula yeast, and concentrate cherry juice) plus GF-120 were compared to standard GF-120 and an untreated control.  There was no difference in control of fruit fly among any of the GF-120 treatments.  All GF-120 treatments provided better control than the untreated.

Enhancement of Attraction of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Rhagoletis indifferens) to Yellow Sticky Traps, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist, USU

Twelve different attractants plus an untreated control were used on yellow sticky traps in cherry orchards to determine effectiveness for trapping adult cherry fruit flies.  Of the thirteen treatments, ammonium hydroxide and ammonium carbonate attracted the most adults.

Control Trial of Woolly and Green Apple Aphid in Apple Tree Canopies, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist, USU, and Thor Lindstrom, Horticulture Research Associate, USU

A new, as-yet unregistered insecticide (Movento, a spirotetramat) was shown to effectively reduce populations of woolly and green apple aphids for up to eight weeks after treatment as compared to horticultural oil, Guthion, and untreated.

Control Trial of Woolly Apple Aphid Galling in Apple Tree Roots, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist, USU, and Thor Lindstrom, Horticulture Research Associate, USU

The systemic insecticide, spirotetramat (Movento 150SC or Ultor 150SC), at a 12 oz/acre rate was shown to be more effective at suppressing woolly apple aphid galls on apple root sucker root systems than the same product at 8 oz/acre and an untreated control.  A single 12 oz/acre treatment applied at petal fall provided the same level of control as two 12 oz/acre treatments (at petal fall and 33 days later).


2006 Reports

Codling Moth Monitoring in Mating Disrupted Apple Orchards, Year 1, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist, USU

In comparing the effectiveness of three codling moth adult trap lures in mating disrupted apple orchards in 2006, Alston found that the CM-DA Combo lure (Pherocon®) was the most effective lure and also provided the best prediction of fruit injury for the season totals.

Codling Moth Control with Rimon (Novaluron) and Other Reduced Risk Insecticides, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist and Thor Lindstrom, Horticulture Research Associate, USU

This study evaluated the effectiveness of Rimon, Assail, and Calypso in the control of codling moth on apples.  There was no difference among treatments, however there is early indication that Rimon is toxic to predatory mites.

Western Cherry Fruit Fly Control Trial:  Can Addition of Adult Attractants Enhance the Efficacy of GF-120? by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist and Thor Lindstrom, Horticulture Research Associate, USU

Researchers found that the addition of 10% ammonium acetate to GF-120 reduced the number of larvae in mature fruit as compared to GF-120 alone, but that the injury rate was similar to that found when using Success and Provado treatments.  The study also looked at treatment effects on mites and beneficial arthropods.


2005 Reports

Western Cherry Fruit Fly Control Trial:  Evaluation of Dow GF-120 NF and Fruit Fly Bait Concentration, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist and Thor Lindstrom, Horticulture Research Associate, USU

This 2005 study showed that fruit fly bait concentration influenced WCFF adult attraction and retention in plots.  More adults were caught on traps in GF-120 and untreated control plots sprayed with 40% than 20% bait.  In contrast, bait concentration did not influence larval infestation of fruits. 

Evaluation of Rimon Phytotoxicty on Apples With and Without Oil, by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist and Thor Lindstrom, Horticulture Research Associate, USU

In 2005, a four-application novaluron (Rimon 0.83 EC) program at two rates with and without horticultural oil showed no symptoms of phytotoxicity to apple leaves or fruit. 

Codling Moth Control with Rimon (Novaluron), by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist and Thor Lindstrom, Horticulture Research Associate, USU

A four-application novaluron (Rimon 0.83 EC) program for first and second generation codling moth on apples showed that eight percent of the fruit in the Rimon plot had codling moth stings versus almost 23% for the untreated, and larval entry injury affected only 0.1% of the treated versus 3.3% of the control fruit.

Reduced Risk Pest Management Systems for US Tart Cherry Production, Year 2 Report,   by Diane Alston, Extension Entomologist

This study evaluated several alternative insect management options to reduce the use of organophosphates.


2004 Reports